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Issues Addressed

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Writer: Delia Baskerville

Year: 11 Level: 6 Duration: 12 lessons

Rationale:

This unit of work is designed to reflect a Māori world view that focuses on establishing, building, and maintaining quality relationships. This focal point aims to sustain equilibrium between individualised learning and achievement, and responsibilities for the hauora (well-being) and achievement of the class. For this purpose (and to cultivate the values embedded in the school curriculum) the focus of this unit is on establishing a safe learning environment, and providing ways of working (including recording ideas) that benefit all students in this year eleven class. The Internal Assessment Resource Issues Addressed is designed to consolidate students learning by providing another opportunity for students to practice Forum Theatre.

Values

(Teachers please insert the values your school have agreed and identified. After reflecting on values identify those which are most pertinent to the learning and teaching).

Key Competencies

Managing self: This process provides opportunities for students to communicate ideas as a whole class, in small groups and with a "learning buddy". In this way, they are supported to: work responsibly; meet deadlines; synthesise cognitive, sensory and emotive forms of thinking as they use their imagination to explore ideas, make healthy lifestyle choices and present their work in a safe, culturally-inclusive learning environment. Students are able to develop strategies to overcome hurdles and know when to change difficult situations in their lives, and are given opportunities to stop being passive spectators but act to make change in their lives.

Achievement Objectives: Level 6

The students will:

Developing Ideas (DI)

Research, evaluate, and refine ideas in a range of dramatic forms to develop drama

Communicating and Interpreting (CI)

Perform and respond to drama and make critical judgments about how Elements, techniques, conventions and technologies are used to create form and meaning in their own and others' work.

Keywords

Managing self, co-operative learning, reflection, point of focus, levels, body tension, and energy.

Summative Assessment:

There are two summative assessment opportunities in this unit.Firstly, teacher observation of class: individual student participation, and group contributions in the performance of forum theatre (LO 1 & 3)Secondly, a portfolio that reflects on class activities, student participation, and the skills, knowledge, understanding and attitudes gained through the process of establishing a safe learning environment, and working co-operatively to change difficult situations, (LO 2). Internal assessment resource Issues addressed supports internal assessment for AS 90008 (1.3).

Collaboration with Other Learning Areas

Health and Physical Education NZ Curriculum: Providing a safe environment. NAG 51: Providing a safe physical and emotional learning environment.

Resources/ Materials:

For this unit the teacher supplies felt pens, butcher paper, leaf and feather paper cut outs, three juggling balls, tarpaulin, a video camera, and a drama space suitable for students to move and interact. The students each supply a hard covered book for journaling, and a pen. The journal entries provided can be adapted into OHT's in schools with minimal photocopying budgets.

Learning Outcomes:

By the end of this unit students will be able to participate and contribute by - LO1: working cooperatively to meet challenges, and express and make sense of ideas LO2: demonstrating knowledge of political epic theatre form with reference to Mother Courage by Brecht LO3: annotating your script and reflecting through the process show how the features were used in performance.

Elements
Role
Focus
Action
Tension
Time and Space
Techniques
Voice
Gesture
Movement
Conventions
Canoning
Freeze frame
Mime
Hot seating
Teaching Learning Sequence Key Questions and Strategies to Guide Formative Assessment

Lesson One:

Learning Intention (LI): We are learning to establish ways of working as a basis for managing self in the classroom
Success Criteria (SC): We will know this when we work cooperatively to establish our class full value contract

 
Expectations and Establishing the Circle:
We sit in a circle and discuss this circle ritual, for example: managing self; shared power, participation, opportunity for improved oral competencies, co-constructing shared understandings, and the rationale (to enhance students' capacity to learn).
Do not move on until a proper circle is established.
What do we need to do to make this a proper circle?
Korero:
In a circle discuss why a safe working environment is required in drama.
Page 34 Curriculum Document What is needed for us to be safe?
Korowai (Cloak): Full value contract
In groups, students brainstorm on paper what we need to do, know, understand and show to keep everyone emotionally, physically and psychologically safe in our classroom. Students choose specific ideas from the brainstorm and write these concepts / words on a cut out leaf or feather shape. Student's pair share their ideas. The pairs join with other pairs and share their ideas in a group. Each student places their feathers and leaves on the class korowai (cloak) on the wall whilst they state a brief explanation for this personal need. We discuss how we will use this place in the classroom when we need to reflect on the impact of our misbehaviours on other's learning.

What does a safe learning environment look like, feel like and sound like?
What are the consequences if we do not consider our hauora (well-being) and responsibility to the class?

Korowai Display: This becomes an approach to address (in the moment) any interruptions in learning. Students are asked to visit the cloak: stand and read it to remind them of their responsibility to manage self in relation to the well being and achievement of the class.

'Crowd Control'
Introduce your methodology for gaining or regaining student attention:

  • 1-2-3 count-downs, or
  • clap and say focus

Explain when they hear your crowd control "method" they must stop what they are doing, focus to hear the next instruction / ideas to pursue / step in their learning.

Discuss what we need to do to make effective, silent transitions between activities?

The teacher scaffolds feedback to ensure students quickly focus. For example: "Far too slow, getting better but still too slow"
Learning about Others (Diagnostic test)
We write down three questions we have always wanted to ask someone we have not met before, but have never had the opportunity to do so. Explain we will be asking others these three questions and will write the person's name and his /her answers down on our paper. Explain we will have 15 minutes to interview as many classmates as we can. We start with people we do not know, or we do not know very well. We all mingle, asking one another our identified questions. After 15 minutes we sit and the teacher stands in front of the class. We call out (one at a time) everything we know about the teacher. When we have run out of new information, the teacher invites a student to come and stand in the space. The process is repeated until all students have had their moment in "centre of attention".

Exemplar questions: Who is our role model? What is our greatest achievement so far in life? Where do we want to be in five years?

Diagnostic Test:
What do I look for during a student's moment in centre of attention? As the teacher, I am assessing their ease in the centre of attention evident in the non-verbal participation in the activity:

  • Body language
  • Eye contact with the class
  • Fidgeting

Notes are made for each individual student. How will this data influence how this unit is adapted to meet the learning needs of the students in my class?

Pass the Ball, Reinforcing names: Stand in the circle. Pass a ball across the circle, saying names before passing it. Remember who we received the ball from, and who we pass it to. In this order;

  • Practice all class names several times
  • Vary the speed: slow motion, and fast.
  • Vary the "intent" by the way we say the name: to please, to get attention; or, to frighten.

The use and correct pronunciations of student names is vital to establishing positive relationships. Ensure all class members are active in monitoring this.

How does character intent affect the way we pass a ball?

Journal Entry One: Read through the journal entry . Discuss journaling experiences, teacher expectations, and allow time to reflect. If incomplete finish the entry for homework. Encourage students to be thinking about what strategies / ideas have we identified today that we will use to manage our self and our learning this year? Ask an identified group of students to hand in journals tomorrow morning to the journal box. The teacher marks them giving feedback regarding the quality of their reflections in terms of their understanding of a safe learning environment, management of self and responsibilities of the group.

Closure:

Pair Share: Tell your learning buddy: what I did well in drama today and identify one strategy for managing self.

Reflective Circle: Facing out, think about the question and turn when ready to share your idea. When we are all ready (facing in) appoint one person to start and indicate a direction to move around. Everyone answers: What does working co-operatively mean to you?

When did I work co-operatively today?

What does working co-operatively mean?

Lesson Two:

LI: We are learning to work co-operatively
SC: We will know this when we participate energetically and complete the set task

Establishing the Circle: If the circle is not a proper circle, ask what do we need to do to make this a proper circle?

In a Tone
Ask students to respond to the roll call according to how they are feeling today.

Marked student journals are in the journal box for students to collect.

Do not move on until a proper circle is established.

How do you feel today?

Pass the Ball Name Game

Play the ball name game from yesterday:

  • establish pattern
  • vary rhythm: slow, medium pace, faster
  • add a second ball
Students choose a learning buddy - someone who will support them in their learning. Buddies pair share: Do you remember more names than yesterday?

Say it Like:

Explain to students you want them to copy words you say (one at a time) exactly as you do

  • You
  • No
  • But
  • I didn't say that
How well did we listen and follow instructions?

Say it Different:

Now students say these words differently from how you say them:

  • Did you?
  • You didn't!
  • Was it really?
  • You don't say.
How can the way we use our voice change the meaning of what we say?

Canoning:

Prior knowledge: Ask who has experienced a Mexican wave at a cricket match. We explain to others who do not know. Introduce the convention of canoning. Make a gesture and ask others (one at a time) to copy. Practice and become faster.

One at a time we make a gesture which is worked in canon. We work together on increasing the speed.

What does effective canoning look like?

Stop at various times during this exercise to provide feedback around energy, commitment, focus, clarity of movement and quality of mimicry so students achieve an excellent standard.

Sound and Movement:

Enthusiastically model a sound and a gesture. Others copy this. The next person in the circle makes a different sound with another gesture. This is copied. This is repeated around the circle until everyone has offered their own sound and gesture.

Enthusiastic modelling is evident in large focused gestures and loud sounds. Why is energy important to what we do? How does energetic sound and gesture give vitality to a piece of drama?
Bang: (to reinforce names)
We stand in a circle. Check the name of the person either side. The instigator calls a name. The person ducks whilst the others either side turn and shoot him / her. Arms are outstretched with a pretend gun in one hand. If one does not duck in time, they are out; or if one of the shooters is too slow they are out. Whoever is out walks into the circle sits and calls the next name. The game continues until the last two are left. They stand back to back, walk and turn to shoot when commanded by the investigator.
In what ways does this game help us to remember names and work co-operatively together?

Closure: Scaffolding:

  1. Pair share: we share with our buddies the way we worked well in class today, and one thing we could do to improve the way we manage our self in drama.
  2. Reflection Circle: we stand in a circle facing out. When we have consolidated our ideas we turn in and wait for others. When all ready, we answer the question: How can I improve my ability to manage myself to work co-operatively in drama next class?
Each lesson students are provided with an opportunity to reflect after the action and self assess their management of self and ways of working in class.
Journal Entry: Time is given for journal entry two , but those who do not complete the exercise, finish it for homework. Ask a different identified group of students to hand in journals tomorrow morning to the journal box. You give feedback regarding the quality of their reflections in terms of the way they are managing self, working co-operatively with others, and strategies (based on your observations) to improve this.

Lesson Three:

LI: We are learning to explore and develop a character.
SC: we will know this when our body language and voice change

Marked student journals are handed back.

Ball Name Game:

Play the ball name game from yesterday using two balls. Take time to establish the pattern, vary the rhythm: slow, medium pace, or faster

In what ways are we managing self to improve our performance skills?

Yes Let's:

Explain this activity is about accepting and giving offers which is what is required to participate in drama. This is played in a circle where:

  • We all have the opportunity to make an offer
  • We respond to one another enthusiastically saying loudly yes let's
  • Everyone then acts out the given offer for 15 seconds
  • We do not accept less than 100% participation.

What did you notice about what makes a good offer? What is required for me to accept an offer?

How does energy affect our performances in drama?

What Are You Doing?

Students stand in a circle. Discuss knowledge about the convention of mime and how this works initially in the activity what are you doing? One confident person volunteers to enter the circle and begins to mime an action. The teacher (or a student who knows the activity) asks: what are you doing? An action is identified that is actually different from the one s/he is doing. The questioner enters the circle and begins the action that was called out. And so the exercise continues.

What is mime?
In what ways does mime effectively set up this activity?

What are the obstacles to thinking on your feet?

Korero:

Why do you think we need to learn about making and accepting offers in drama?

 

Mingle, Mingle:

We are to work in a role of our choice: think of a favourite character and begin to walk in silence as that character does. Explain: we are waking up first thing in the morning. Freeze. Explain feet firmly on the floor. We are drinking coffee, freeze. Explain point of focus. We are eating our favourite food. Freeze, explain body tension. We are getting ready to go out. Freeze. Explain energy to leave the freeze frame so there is a contrast between stillness and movement. We are sweeping leaves and tidying up our garden. Freeze. Comment on students' work, in ways that are improving the quality of freeze frames, and indicate what needs improving. We are skateboarding.

Pair Share: What makes an effective freeze frame? What are the components of effective mime?

Hot Seating:

We discuss our understanding of hot seating. A volunteer sits in front of the class and is asked questions to encourage character development. Students find their buddies, and choose A and B. A is hot seated first. We discover more about our characters.

What do we know of the convention hot seating?

In what ways does hot seating help us understand our character?

Back Story:

Students fill in the back story sheet that enables them to think about this character and his / her past.

How might a back story enable us to understand a role in drama?
Journal: Complete journal entry three . Attached to this resource

Closure: (Scaffolding):

Pair Share: Students share with their learning buddy: Why do we need to develop back story for our characters?
What did I learn about developing a character today?

 
Reflective Circle: We stand in a circle facing out. When ready to respond turn inwards, and wait for others. One at a time we make our response to the question: What did I learn about our character today? Ask a different identified group of students to hand in journals tomorrow morning to the journal box. You give feedback regarding the quality of their reflections in terms of character development.

Lesson Four

LI: We are learning to develop trust in others.
SC: We will know this when we move safely and confidently with and amongst others others in space.

Ball Name Game:

Students stand in the circle by their buddies.
Play the ball name game from yesterday using two balls. Take time to establish the pattern, vary the rhythm: slow, medium pace, or faster.

Marked journals are in the journal box for students to collect.

 

 

Learning buddy share: what am I doing better than yesterday?

Canon:

Practice canoning as in previous lessons.

Learning buddy share: In what ways are we improving the quality of work in our class?

Copy Exactly as I Say:

  • You
  • No
  • But
  • I didn't say that
 

Say it Differently:

  • Not at all
  • I didn't say that.
  • You didn't
  • Never.
Learning buddy share: Is the way I am following instructions to deliver these lines reflecting my creative potential?

Gesture and Sound:

Students bring these skills together and make a gesture and sound that is copied around the circle.

 

Extending Focus:

Teacher models eye contact with A across the circle. Teacher points and says you. As Teacher begins to move to A's position A establishes contact with B points and says you. So it continues around the circle.

Learning buddy Share: Is my ability to focus increasing? Tell your learning buddy how you know this?

Leading by the Finger

An exercise in pairs, students choose A & B. They are instructed to work in silence: A leads B around the room by the nose using his/her finger. They must keep the finger equally distant all the time. B must follow instructions. Reverse roles.

Did you find it easy to give or follow instructions?
What were the difficulties you experienced when participating in this exercise?

Cars:

In pairs, choose A & B, A stands in front of B and places hands upright in front as if a car judder bar. B holds A's elbows gently. A closes eyes and makes car sounds. B leads A gently around the room. Reverse roles.

How well did we follow non- verbal directions to move in space?

Trains:

Ask pairs to join to form fours, and line up one behind the other, all facing the same way. The driver is the person at the back of the line. Explain the code - the driver squeezes left elbow of person in front to turn train to the left. This message is passed down the line, until received by the last person who begins to turn the train to the left. In the same way the driver squeezes the right elbow to turn right, and both elbows to either stop or start the train. Change the driver at regular intervals by side coaching freeze driver to the front, new driver begin. Every student has a turn driving.

NB: It takes time for these messages to travel down the line so there is no point in constantly pressing the elbow of the person in front.

 

In what ways is it difficult for us to trust classmates?

Journal Entry Four: Complete the journal entry provided for this lesson. Students are encouraged to think about what we need to think and do about managing ourselves in relation to trusting others? We are given time to complete in class, however if incomplete for homework
Reflective Circle: As in previous lessons students initially face out, when ready turn in wait for others then one at a time respond to the question: How do we need to manage ourselves to be safe in our drama classroom? Continue to take in student journals and give feedback that is related to the learning intentions since you last marked their work. Continue to work in this way so students are receiving relevant, pertinent feedback that indicates to them the required direction of their future learning.

Lesson Five

LI: We are learning to manage ourselves to work safely together in drama.
SC: We will know this when we follow directions and move orderly in space.

Ball Name Game:

Play the ball name game from yesterday using two balls. Take time to establish the pattern, vary the rhythm: slow, medium pace, or faster

Marked journals are in the box for student to collect.

 

 

In what ways is our work more disciplined?

Lead by Finger

As in yesterday's class we work in silence: A leads B around the room by the nose using his/her finger. We must keep the finger equally distant all the time. B must follow instructions. Reverse roles.

What was our experience of trusting others today?

Command Pairs:

Choose a different partner (one not worked with before) and choose A and B. A commands B to do an action in the space. B must carry out the command. After a minute or two reverse roles and B commands A in what to do.

How did the tone of voice affect our ability to follow instructions?

How easy is it for us to do something we don't want to do?

Trust Circle:

We form groups of six and stand in a circle. One student stands in the middle with arms crossed over the chest. Others in the circle stand facing inwards, one foot on front of the other, knees bent, hands extended waiting. We pass the person in the middle gently from one to another.

How do we need the people in the circle to behave to trust them?

In what ways are we working safely?

Learning Buddy Share:

A brief discussion between buddies about their character work in lesson three to recap on their discoveries about their character.

 

Saving the Crew:

Teacher side coaches giving students a minute to show each situation: we are about to take a cruise (as our characters). Mime packing our bags. Freeze: feet firmly on the floor. Walk around the room and give feedback regarding balance. Unfreeze: we are walking to the ship carrying our bags. Freeze: give feedback on the body tension and how this could be improved. Unfreeze: Now we board the ship - show the body tension and weight of carrying your bag. We are entering the ship. Freeze: give feedback on the point of focus, and how individual students can improve this. Unfreeze: we gather for drinks after the porter has taken our bags as our rooms are not quite ready. Freeze: think about the energy required to come out of a freeze: the contrast between stillness and movement. Listen to the following instructions and come out of the freeze with lots of energy.

Begin to film student work at this point.
The ship is sinking. We must board the life boat (a piece of large tarpaulin is placed on the ground). Unfreeze. Once all aboard explain the life boat, freeze. Explain this life boat has sprung a leak and we have to get on to another life boat. (Another piece of tarpaulin that is half the size of the first is laid out beside the one we are on). Once we are on board, fold the plastic in half and continue in this way until all are "squeezed" into a tight area on the plastic. This is a size appropriate for this group of students. Freeze.

The camera is in place to film this exercise.
The teacher folds the tarpaulin throughout the exercise. We view the video together later to discuss our class accomplishments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pair share: Did you save anyone else or was it all about you?

 

 

Why do we need to cooperate in drama?
How did working in this way enable us to become a more trusting community?

Korero: We sit in a circle, discuss safe touching, managing ourselves in relation to other's emotional, psychological, physical and learning needs In what ways did this exercise consolidate our class policy?
Reflective Circle: We stand in a circle facing out, think about our work and face inwards. When we are all ready, we each answer the question: In what ways do I need to manage myself in relation to others so we are all safe in our drama class?  
Journal Entry: Students are given the journal entry to complete for homework. Continue to take in student journals and give feedback that is related to the learning intentions since you last marked their work. Continue to work in this way so students are receiving relevant, pertinent feedback that indicates to them the required direction of their future learning.

Lesson Six

LI: We are learning to manage ourselves to contribute to a strong, effective, powerful freeze frame
SC: We will know this when we are all still, focused on the same place, and body Tension is evident.

Marked journals are in the box for student to collect.

Ball Name Game:

Play the ball name game from yesterday using three balls. Take time to establish the pattern, vary the rhythm: slow, medium pace, or faster.

How difficult was it to keep a regular rhythm today?

Copy Exactly as I Say:

  • You
  • Not really
  • But you said
  • I didn't say that
 

Say it Differently:

  • Not at all
  • I didn't say that
  • You didn't
  • Never
Are we becoming more confident in using our voices expressively?
How do we know this?

Lead by Finger

As in yesterday's class we work in silence: A leads B around the room by the nose using his/her finger. We must keep the finger equally distant all the time. B must follow instructions. Reverse roles.

In what ways did we follow the leader's non verbal instructions easily and freely today?

Command Pairs:

Choose another partner (someone not worked with before) and choose A and B. A commands B to do an action in the space. B must carry out the command. After a minute or two reverse roles and B commands A in what to do.

How did this exercise differ from our previous experience?

Trains:

Pairs join to form fours, and line up one behind the other, all facing the same way. The driver is the person at the back of the line. Explain code - the driver squeezes left elbow of person in front to turn train to the left. This message is passed down the line, until received by the last person who begins to turn the train to the left. In the same way the driver squeezes the right elbow to turn right, and both elbows to either stop or start the train. Change the driver at regular intervals by side coaching Freeze, driver to the front, new driver begin. Every student has a turn driving.

Pair share: What successes did our group experience in implementing this activity? What difficulties did your group experience? What evidence is there of trusting others in our class?

Korero:

Play video of Sinking ship. Together discuss: energy leaving initial freeze, levels, point of focus, and co-operative group work. Discuss the effective (and ineffective) ways of this sinking ship exercise in building class policy.

Who was working effectively with others? How do we know this?
Was anyone working in isolation?
What would we do differently if we were to play this trust exercise again?
What are the components of a strong, effective powerful freeze frame?

Accepting Focus:

Ask for six volunteers. Enter the room one at a time. A enters and establishes a point of focus and freezes in that position. B enters a little later, accepts A's point of focus and freezes in that position. Continue in this way until the point of focus is reinforced by all on stage. Again this is filmed. Watched and unpacked.

When is an effective point of focus? How do we know this?

Tableaux:

The class is divided into three groups and allocated a topic. The task is to create a freeze frame of a given moment:

  • A Mould Family Reunion in a fridge
  • A hangi
  • A wedding

These are viewed (under lights if possible) and discussed in relation to what we have learned about what makes an effective freeze frame.

What are the important components that make an effective freeze frame?

Journal Entry:

Journal entries are made about the process (initial character work; initial freeze frame exercise; sinking ship exercise; accepting focus, tableaux) and the discoveries we have made re: the convention of freeze frame.
Key words: point of focus, levels, body tension, energy, and role.

Selected student journals are handed in and marked for next class. Students are given specific feedback re: the insightful understanding of the convention of freeze frame

Learning Buddy Share: What do I need to do to improve managing myself in a group freeze frame?

Reflective Circle: What have we learnt about an effective freeze frame?

Homework: Ask students to begin to research bullying. They may choose to share family stories or consult with librarians, and whanau (extended family) to find safe web sites.

Lesson Seven

LI: We are learning to mange ourselves, talk purposely, share ideas and allow others to use these ideas.
SC: We will know this when we have improvised a scene.

Marked journals are in the box for student to collect.

Yes Let's:

Students stand in a circle one by one every student makes an offer. The students respond enthusiastically yes let's. Everyone then acts out the given offer for 15 seconds.

We do not accept less than 100% participation.
Pair share: in what ways do I need to work to maintain high, enthusiastic attitude to participating in drama.

Photograph:

Hand out photographs and ask students (as a class) what they see in this picture. (People, time of day, time in history and place).

Students move into groups and decide on a context for their group's interpretation of this picture:
The time, place, and who these characters are in relation to each other.
What happens in the near future?
What has just happened?
The teacher selects groups (based on confident students supporting less confident students in their learning).

Unpack:

  • Who are these people? (role)
  • Who are they in relation to each other?
  • What day and date is it? (time)
  • What do we understand is happening? (dramatic action)
  • How do we know?
  • Where is the point of focus of the scene? (focus)
  • How do we know?
  • Where is the tension? (tension). How can we tell?
  • What is the mood of the scene? (mood)

Hot seating:

Move into groups, and negotiate and select characters from the picture to play. In pairs students hot seat each of these roles.

What are we doing in this place?
How well do we know the other characters?

What have we learnt about our character? What else do we need to know?

Improvisation:

Choose an idea involving a conflict to develop for what might happen in the future. Improvise this idea to develop what characters say.

How might we incorporate freeze frame, canoning, and mime into our scene?
What were the struggles we experienced improvising today?
What do I need to do to strengthen my performance?

Show and Respond:

Each group shows another group their work, and receives feedback around the clarity of ideas.

What aspects of the story do we not understand?
What recommendations can we make to the group to clarify these?
Reflection: Journal entry seven
Homework: research bullying
Students write a paragraph about working effectively in a group.
Reflective Circle: In what ways did we manage ourselves in our group to successfully share ideas?  

Lesson Eight:

LI: We are learning to identify appropriate observer responses to bullying
SC: We will know this when we listen to Stories about persecution.

Marked journals are in the box for student to collect.

Rolling Role:

(Donut) In two circles, facing each other students prepare to share stories, whilst the teacher side coaches. Delegate A as outer circle members and B as the inner circle.

  • A - describe a time when you witnessed someone being bullied.
  • B - tell a story about what others did when someone was bullied. Move to the right.
  • A - tell the story about someone who behaved out of character when they witnessed bullying.
  • B - describe how the incident stopped or was stopped. Move to the right.
  • A - tell a story about a time when you felt intimidated
  • B - tell a story about a time when you intimidated someone.

Class discussion around bullying.

This activity acknowledges students' personal experiences which:

  1. provides an opportunity to explore a meaningful context of learning
  2. develops our shared understanding of what bullying is.

 

 

 

 

 

What is bullying?

Continuum

Use a 0 -10 scale (zero no tolerance for bullying and ten do not see a problem with bullying) to identify students' views to bullying.

Take a photograph of students positioning on the continuum to see if it changes as a result of the impending Forum Theatre experience.

Shared stories:

Together share situations witnessed that exemplify bullying (e.g. taking someone's lunch, standing over someone to get them to do something they do not want to do). Identify situations in our own lives that are difficult to find answers for. The intent is to share appropriate stories around these situations. Discuss the boundaries e.g. do not share what you would not want the entire class to hear about).

What situations have you witnessed around bullying? What was your reaction?
In hindsight, in what ways would you change your reaction to these situations?

Boal: Forum Theatre

Introduce features of Boal's Forum Theatre

An example for teachers

Reflection:

How do I manage my observer responsibilities in situations of bullying?

Journal Entry: What do I need to change about my own behaviour in relation to bullying?

Lessons Nine and Ten:

We are learning to devise a story based on our life experience.
SC: we will know this when have played a scene to another group.

What are the issues your students face?
How might this data influence your planning (choice of scripts etc) during the rest of the year?

Group Story:

Self select group members to form groups of four or five. We share stories of times when we experienced or witnessed bullying. We choose one of these stories, or make one group story from a combination of the shared stories just heard.

What factors contributed to choosing our particular story?

Shaping the Story:

As a group plot your story by identifying four important moments in your story:

  1. Set up the world of your story
  2. Reveal the conflict of the story
  3. Develop a crisis point of the story
  4. Resolve the conflict
What are the important aspects of a story we need to tell?

Freeze Frame:

Create four freeze frames of these moments.

What do we need to remember to make an effective, powerful freeze frame?

Improvising:

Using the first two freeze frames as the beginning and end points, discuss what might happen between these two moments. Improvise this as a group. Show work to another group to ensure they understand your ideas. Receive feedback around what works well and what is hard to understand.

Work using freeze frames two and three in the same way, create a scene and give and receive feedback to / from another group.

Work using freeze frames three and four in the same way, create a scene and give and receive feedback to / from another group.

In what ways do we build tension in drama?

 

 

 

How did we incorporate important events into our story?

Run Your Entire Story:

Using freeze frame one and four to frame the drama students are asked to run their drama. Play to another group and receive feedback around the clarity of the story and the authenticity of characters.

What do we need to change to acknowledge the feedback we received?

Reflective Circle:

What have we learnt about managing ourselves when devising a group story?

Research an issue you face in your life that you would like to investigate and change. Write a paragraph in your journal to explain why others would want to investigate this issue.

Lesson Eleven:

LI: we are learning to manage ourselves and participate in Forum Theatre.
SC: we will know this when we have experienced (or witnessed) an intervention in a story to change the events.

Marked journals are in the box for student to collect.

The Process:

The entire class sits and the teacher explains the process and the concept of the Joker.
The teacher models the role of the joker, and makes explicit the complexities of this role. The students observe the teacher in the role and pair share their approaches to taking on the Joker role for their own groups. One group is to volunteer to show their scene to the class. One student introduces her/himself in the role of the joker. The scene will be viewed twice - the first time all the way through. Then we will be given an opportunity to pair share where we think an intervention could happen that would make a difference to the situation. We discuss what role we would replace and what we would do to change the situation. During this second time of running the scene, someone claps and the scene freezes. S/he and her /his learning buddy go into the scene. One taps the actor who will be replaced. The other stands to the side as support. The group is given a few minutes to talk about it before they play the new scene. The "outsider" claps and her/his learning buddy plays the scene out (from the beginning) using their intervention idea. Students are given the opportunity to ask questions to clarify this process.

What do you notice about the role of joker?
What would you need to be thinking about to successfully realise that role?

How is the role of joker introduced?

What are the potential times of intervention?
Why would you intervene there?
What difference do you think this would make?

 

What is required to play the joker role in a Forum Theatre process?

 

What strategies do I need to put into place so that I participate fully (as a responsible class member) in our class Forum Theatre?

Finding the Answers:

A group volunteers The scene is played. All watch and pair share ideas regarding an intervention. On the second showing two students clap and intervene in the way described above.

What are the potential times of intervention?
Why would you intervene at this point?
What difference do you think this would make?

Class Reflection:

As a class, discuss the ways this intervention was successful in addressing the bullying situation in the story we have just seen. Identify aspects of the facilitation we need to remember so our group Jokers may facilitate the task well. Offer an opportunity for others (who want to trial different ideas) to intervene.

In what ways was the intervention successful?
In what ways was the bullying lessoned?
Has seeing this story challenged our thinking around bullying?
What is the safest level of intervention required to disperse this bullying situation?

Journal Entry:

This is completed in their small groups.

  1. What features of forum theatre have we used as a class?
  2. What have I learnt about these features?
Student journals are handed in and marked for next class. Students are given specific feedback re: the process they went through for this work, and their understanding of Forum Theatre.

Lesson Twelve:

LI: we are learning to use Forum Theatre.
SC: we will know this when we identified and discussed the features and how we experienced them.

Marked journals are in the box for student to collect.

Rolling Role:

  1. What are the features of Forum Theatre
  2. What was a successful intervention for bullying yesterday?
  3. How comfortable would I be using that intervention?
  4. What do I need to do to so I might participate in making an intervention in another group's story today?

This exercise provides an opportunity for students to recap on the previous lesson

A class discussion is held at the completion of the pair share in rolling role to clarify any ideas we are struggling with.

Finding the Answers:

The success of this exercise is dependent on our ownership of the process and on taking the risk to intervene. A scene is played. All watch.

Where are the openings in the scene for intervention?

Pair Share:

Share ideas with buddies regarding an intervention that would be pertinent to this situation. On the second showing two students clap and intervene in the way described above.

What are the potential times of intervention?
Why would you intervene there?
What difference do you think this would make?

Reflection:

As a class discuss the ways this intervention was successful in addressing the bullying situation. Offer (and provide) an opportunity for others (who want to trial different ideas) to intervene.

 

Other Scenarios:

Work in this way through as many other scenarios as you desire?

What are we noticing about bullying stories?
What are we learning about how to stop bullying?

Continuum

Use a 0 -10 scale (zero no tolerance for bullying and ten do not see a problem with bullying) to identify students' views to bullying.

Take a photograph of students positioning on the continuum to see if it has changed as a result of our involvement in this forum theatre experience.

Journal Entry:

This is completed in their small groups:
What opportunities does forum theatre offer for change?

What have you learnt about your students through this process? How will this data influence the groupings for the assessment task? Will you negotiate after the self selection process if students' learning is at risk?
Assessment Task 90008 (1.3): "Issues addressed" Students are grouped to begin the assessment task.
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