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It is recommended that students have completed Unit One: Respect for Yourself. This unit focussed upon emotions - the recognition of emotions, and ways we may behave during particular emotional states, self-respect and techniques for managing emotions with success. When students are able to recognise their own emotions, they are more likely to be aware of the emotions of others and hence, behave in an empathetic manner. The work in this unit builds on Unit One and attempts to use dance activities as a medium to develop skills in behaving with empathy towards others.


What is respect? What is respectful and disrespectful behaviour? What emotions might we experience in respectful and disrespectful situations? How can we manage our emotions in respectful and disrespectful situations?

Activity 1. What is respect?

Facilitate a class/small group discussion about what the students consider 'respect' to be.Suggested questions:

  • What does respect mean?
  • Who needs to be respected? Why?
  • Should some people be respected more than others?
  • What are some ways that we can show someone that we respect him or her?
  • What can happen when a person is not shown any respect?
  • What are some ways that we can respect ourselves?
  • What are some ways that we can show disrespect for ourselves?
  • How would someone offend you?
  • Are some people offended more easily than others? Why/why not?
Activity 2. 'Discussion, Debate'

The following statements can be used to further the discussions from Activity One. Use as appropriate for the class.

  • Teachers should be respected because they are teachers.
  • Parents should be respected because they are our parents.
  • I should be respected because I am a human being.
  • Everyone has the right to some respect - even criminals.
  • Someone you are scared of should be respected.
  • Respect has to be earned.
Activity 3. What do you do when...?

Working alone or in pairs, students complete the statements on Worksheet One ( 1 KB)
Compare the answers that the students are prepared to share. (Some students may not wish to share their answers.)
Why do we sometimes behave in a way that is disrespectful to others?
Some answers may include:
Some people don't care about the feelings of others
Sometimes we are not 'tuned in' to other people's feelings
Some people are too busy thinking of themselves and not others
Different cultures behave differently in certain situations
Manners are not important to some people
Put a star beside one of the situations shown on Worksheet One in which you would like to act differently next time it occurs.

Activity 4. What is respectful behaviour? What is disrespectful behaviour?

worksheet_2 Respect or disrespect (Word 36 KB)

Students are asked to classify situations as respectful or disrespectful. They are also asked to note down how they might feel in each situation. This is to begin to link behaviour with feelings or emotions. Many students will be attuned to this already - but others may not. The students should work in pairs or threes for this activity. (By working with others, those who may sometimes be more disrespectful may learn from their more respectful peers in a subtle, non-threatening way.)Instructions for students:

  • Draw a star beside the situations you have experienced before.
  • Draw a triangle beside any situations where you wish you had felt differently.
  • Draw a line underneath the worst situation.
  • Draw a circle around the best situation.
  • Discuss your decisions with other people in your group. What did they think about the best and the worst situations? Were they the same as yours? Does it matter if people's opinions are different?
Activity 5. The Shape of an Emotional Situation

worksheet_3 Shape of an emotion (Word 28 KB)

The aim of this activity is for students to have further experience in recognising, or beginning to learn how to recognise, emotions or feelings in themselves and others. This time there is a situation involved and the emotions that may be felt are reactions to those situations.
Working in pairs or threes as before, they select four of the statements from Worksheet Two , including the 'worst' and 'best' situations and focus on the feelings they have described for each one.
What would these feelings 'look like' to another person? How would the people be positioned?
The students sketch stick figures to represent how they think the situations and associated feelings could be expressed by body shapes. They may wish to use two or more stick figures to represent some situations and feelings.

Some questions to ask:
Would the stick figure/s be standing, sitting, or lying down?
Would the stick figure/s have open or closed body shapes?
(An open body shape could be more upright and strong, with the head held erect and the arms held away from the torso. A closed body shape could be hunched, bent or curled with the head lowered and arms close to or across the chest/torso.)
What position/s would the stick figure/s arms be in?
In which direction/s would the stick figures be focussed?

Assessment Opportunity:
LO1: Students can identify behaviours showing respect and disrespect

Activity 6. The Shape of Emotions in Action
  • Continuing to work with their original pairs or threes, the students now create each of the shapes sketched on Worksheet Three with their bodies. Some shapes will require just one or two people to perform them. The other/s could copy those shapes, create variations of them, or even contrast with an opposite emotion. The result should be four distinct tableaux.
  • Create three transition movements to be performed between each tableau. Try to make each transition movement relate to the emotion about to be portrayed. This could include moving along a distinctive pathway as in Activity 7 The Pathway of an Emotion ( 23 KB)
  • Rehearse holding each tableau for eight counts, before the transition into the next shape.
  • Rehearse for clarity. Encourage the students to try and 'feel' each emotion as they perform it.
  • Perform for either the whole class or just one other group.

Questions for the audience:

  • What did you see?
  • How were the dancers positioned?
  • What levels did they use?
  • Where were they focussed?
  • Were their body positions opened or closed?
  • Were their body positions upright, curved, twisted or curled?
  • What were the emotions being expressed?
  • How did you know what they were communicating?
  • What 'told' you how they were feeling?
  • Which of the tableaux were communicating respectful situations?
  • Which of the tableaux were communicating disrespectful situations?

Assessment Opportunity:
LO2: Students can create and perform dance movements about emotional situations.

Activity 7. The Dance-Room 'Culture'

Modelling Empathetic Behaviour

Just as research on child-rearing shows that parental modelling of empathetic speech and actions enhances children's empathy and pro-social behaviour, the empathy training research shows that when teachers model desired values, children are more likely to adopt these than when they are merely exhorted to behave in a certain way Kohn 1991; and Kremer and Dietzen 1991Do the students feel comfortable in the dance room? Do the students feel welcome? Do the students feel able to work with everyone in the class? How do the students behave towards each other? Is the dance room a respectful environment?A welcoming and comfortable atmosphere helps to facilitate success.Below are two lists of challenges. The first is a list of suggestions for the teacher ( 25 KB)

The teacher has to be the initiator and leader in making the dance-room a respectful working environment. The suggestions may serve as useful reminders. For example, it is sometimes easy to fail to acknowledge a student's presence in the room, especially if the class contains others who command attention from the moment they walk through the door.The second list is for

the students (Word 1 KB)

It is suggested that the list is discussed as a class so that each student is aware of the standards required when they are in the Dance-Room. It could also be appropriate to add to the list. The list could be put on the Dance-Room noticeboard or photocopied and included in portfolios, to be referred to at the end of each week, month or term. (It may also be considered appropriate for the class to discuss the Teacher's Challenge!)


A self-assessment sheet has also been included so that students can comment on the way they think they relate to others. If appropriate, it may also be possible for students to assess each other.

Developing a Respectful Dance-Room Culture Respect can't be expected. It needs to be earned by the modelling of respectful practice.

Suggestions for the teacher
  • Make eye contact with every student before the lesson begins. In this way, even if you haven't spoken to each student you have at least acknowledged his or her presence in the room. The acknowledgement through eye contact and perhaps a smile helps to make each student feel part of the class.
  • Say "Hello _____" to as many students as possible.
  • Talk to the students: "How are you?" "Are you feeling as energetic as you were yesterday?" "It's great to see that you remembered your Dance gear today." "I'm looking forward to seeing the finish of your dance today." "Thanks for helping our new student yesterday. I think she was feeling very nervous."
  • Ensure there are appropriate changing facilities for all students
  • Recognise effort and improvement in individual students - not just high achievement.
  • Be fair
  • Plan with individual students ways to develop their work
  • Ensure every student is included in a group before starting a group activity
  • Acknowledge students who have ensured everyone is part of a group
  • Regularly change the grouping of students
  • Acknowledge groups who are working cooperatively and identify how this is being achieved
  • Encourage a safe environment for the presentation of dance work - establish and insist upon appropriate rules for audience behaviour
  • Conduct brief reflection sessions at the end of each lesson. Summarise what happened regarding dance activities and also how the class worked together to develop a positive dance-room culture. If individual students excelled in a particular way, acknowledge this either to the student privately (to avoid embarrassing him or her, if this is a possibility) or to the whole class if appropriate.
A challenge for Dance students:

How YOU can help to create a great Dance-Room culture

  • Say "Hello ______" to the teacher when you arrive in the Dance Room - every lesson
  • Apologise to the teacher if you are late to class
  • Say "Hello ______" or talk to at least two other students in the class who aren't your closest friends
  • Choreograph with students who aren't your closest friends. You may well produce some fabulous results
  • Be encouraging about the performance and choreography of other students. Find at least one positive comment to make in every lesson
  • If you see someone left out in a group activity, encourage him/her to join your group
  • Be a good audience member - you could be performing next
  • Tell the teacher when you really enjoyed a dance class
  • Smile
Activity 8. Relating to Others - Practical Warm-up/Starter Activities

These activities, or variations of them, can be used in Dance classes many times.

A Walk in the Dark

Students in pairs - one standing in front of the other. The front person (the 'blind' one) closes their eyes. The back student is the 'guide' who places their hands on the other's shoulders and guides them safely around the room without touching anyone or anything. The front student is not blindfolded and can open their eyes at any stage, but the goal is to trust their guide for the entire 'tour' and for the guide to be trustworthy.
Swap roles but after each turn allow time for the students to discuss how they felt in their required roles. Did the guide perform well? Did the 'blind' one feel safe? Did the 'blind' one allow the guide to do their job?
This activity can be developed by the placement of obstacles for the pairs to negotiate (either by climbing over, under or moving between) and the guide giving clear instructions.

Be the Boss

Organise the class to stand in a large circle.
Play a few bars of some lively music so that students can get a 'feel' for the beat and rhythm.
Perform some easy warm-up movements such as walks on the spot, a grapevine step to the right and left, jogs in a small circle or simple arm movements. The students copy as they are performed.
Explain that they are now going to take turns to lead the class in some simple warm-up moves. They may work with the person/s next to them or work alone, and they can have two minutes to plan a simple warm-up move that they will lead and the class will follow (for about 8-16 counts) when it is their turn.
The teacher starts by performing a move, which the students copy, and then the teacher points to the student/s on the right, who then perform their move and everyone copies.
Continue until everyone has had a turn to 'be the boss'.

How did it feel to have everyone watching you?
What was the most difficult part?

Dice Game

The teacher plays some lively music.
The students move around the room in a manner chosen by the teacher or improvised by the students, without touching anyone and by moving into spaces as they see them.
The teacher stops the music at an appropriate time (45 seconds approximately) and rolls a dice.
Groups of the number shown are formed as fast as possible. (The teacher must ensure all students are included in a group and be aware of students who may be left out. It does not matter if there is one more or less in a group.)
A task is then given.
For example: Make a group shape on three different levels; a connected shape; a symmetrical shape; a shape with a body base of five feet, two hands and one knee.
The shapes are acknowledged by the teacher - perhaps a mark out of five could be given, based on its 'exciting factor', them the music starts again and a new locomotor movement is used before the dice is rolled a second time. This can be repeated several more times.

Trains. (Improvising and shadowing) Elements of Dance: Locomotor and Non-Locomotor Movement
Groups of 4-8 form lines with one as a leader. The leader is the train driver and the others are the carriages. The music starts and the leader improvises locomotor movement, which the others follow as best as they can. When the music stops (after 30-40 seconds) the train driver drops off, goes to the back of the train and the second in line becomes the driver.
Stop the game when everyone has had at least one turn as driver.
It may be necessary to give students ideas for their locomotor movement (such as: a movement that touches the floor, a movement that reaches high and low, a movement that accentuates the knees etc)
This can also be used to contrast locomotor and non-locomotor movement where the drivers alternate travelling and movement on the spot.

Dragon's Tail

Students form lines of four to six students per line, each holding onto the shoulders of the person in front. The lead student is the head of the dragon. The last student is the tail and has a length of fabric tucked into their trousers/shorts. The head tries to grab the tail. When he/she does, the head moves to the back of the dragon and becomes the tail while the second in line becomes the new head. Swap around if it is taking too long for a head to grab a tail.
If the class is working well, this activity can be extended to having the dragon chase other dragons' tails. This can become somewhat raucous though!

The following two activities focus on developing skills in relating to others with success.

Activity 9. Meetings and Greetings!

All cultures have customs for meeting and greeting. This activity explores some different methods of acknowledging other people using movement.Saying 'hello' What are some variations of the English 'Hello'? Some suggestions might be: 'Hi', 'Howdy', 'Hi-yah', and 'Hi there' Use the brief list below and add more, or create a new one using languages of students in the class.

Maori Kia ora
Cook Island Kia orana
Fijian Bula
German Guten tag
Hawaiian Aloha
Hindi Namasté
Italian Buon giorno
Japanese Konnichi wa
Korean Annyong hashimnikka
Niuean Fakaalofa atu
Samoan Talofa/Malo
Tongan Malo e lelei

As a class, practise the correct pronunciation for each greeting. (This has not been provided - use student experts as necessary). Work in pairs and practise saying each greeting as correctly as possible.

Greeting behaviour
Ask the students to identify how they have been taught to behave when meeting someone for the first time or greeting someone they already know.
Make a list on the board, acknowledging particular cultural conventions.
What are some appropriate types of behaviours when greeting someone in New Zealand?
What could be some examples of 'inappropriate' behaviour?
What could be some causes of 'inappropriate' behaviour?
What should you do when someone behaves in a way that you consider is inappropriate in a greeting situation?
What are some ways that people greet other people outside New Zealand?
Is making eye contact an essential part of every greeting for every culture?

Practical Activity
The students walk around the room anywhere they choose. They should begin slowly and speed up as the game continues. Every time they travel past another student they must acknowledge them in a particular manner as indicated by the teacher. Select from the brief list below or from the list developed during the class discussion.

  • Keep eyes lowered and move aside to make room for someone to pass by
  • Make eye contact with someone as you walk past them
  • Make eye contact and nod your head
  • Make eye contact and bow
  • Make eye contact and smile
  • Make eye contact, smile and say 'hello' in any language
  • Make eye contact, smile and shake hands
  • Make eye contact, smile and 'hi five' them
  • Make eye contact, smile and a little wave
  • Make eye contact, smile and a big wave
  • Make eye contact, smile and jump up into a high 'hi five'
  • Another forms of greetings as selected by the teacher and students:
    • Hongi
    • Hug
    • Curtsey

Making a 'Meeting and Greeting' dance In groups of three or four, select at least four forms of 'meeting and greeting' already explored, and use them to create a short 'Meeting and Greeting' dance. The dance should:

  • Use the following words from the Dance Element of Relationships in some way:
    • Towards
    • Beside
    • Behind
    • Around
  • Change levels at least twice
  • Increase in tempo
  • Finish in an imaginative 'greeting' still shape
Activity 10. Thank you! Thank you! Thank you!

How do you say thank you to someone and show that you mean it? Some answers may include: Eye contact, a smile, the way the voice is used, the body language (the way you position your body)Sometimes people say thank you, but don't really mean it. What would a situation be where this could occur? What is sarcasm? Sarcasm is the use of positive words in a bitter or wounding tone. It is used to imply the opposite of what is being said.In pairs, read the three 'thank you' cases below and think of a 'real life' situation for each one:

  • A genuine feeling - you really want to thank someone
  • To be polite
  • A sarcastic thank you (the person has really annoyed you)

Make a 'Thank you, Thank you, Thank you!' movement sequence Practise saying thank you in the three different ways (see above). Test each other to find out if they can understand the 'thank you' tones.Match each 'thank you' with appropriate body language. Some suggestions could be:

  • A genuine thank you: a hug, a big smile, a big handshake, open posture and use of eye contact
  • A polite thank you: formal, upright, a bow, a small handshake
  • A sarcastic thank you: little or no eye contact, closed body posture, no body contact, body turned away

Perform the three different body language moves without vocalising. Are they different from each other? Can you still understand what each one is communicating when there is no vocalisation? Exaggerate the body language for each 'thank you' as much as possible:

  • A genuine thank you: Add extra movement (insertion)
  • A formal thank you: Add detail (embellish)
  • A sarcastic thank you: Make it bigger and take longer to perform it (augment)

Work together to create a short sequence using each thank you movement (in any order) and linking them with different pathways and locomotor movements.Rehearse and perform for the class or another group.

Questions for the audience:
In what order did they perform their 'thank you' movements?
In what ways did they communicate each thank you?
Was there any way they could have made the movements clearer?

Activity 11. Balance with Others

Class discussion:
Talking to someone about a problem, or asking for advice or help is not always easy, but it can often be the best solution.
Who can you talk to?
Who can you trust?
If a friend or family member came to you for advice, what would you do?
Enlarge and photocopy ' Look, Listen and Think ( 1 KB) ' and show this to the class. This chart is adapted from work by Mary Gordon (Roots of Empathy programme).
Discuss each part and how it may be useful when you need to ask for advice, a friend needs you to help them in some way or when you are making general conversation with a friend or family member.

Challenge before the next Dance class:
Either at home tonight or at some time during the rest of the day, talk to someone you know well. Ask them "How are you? What have you been doing today?"
Try and follow the advice on the 'Look, Listen and Think' chart - listen to what they say, watch how they say it and try to imagine what it would be like to be 'in their shoes'.
Make a comment about something they have said or ask another question so that the conversation continues.
Afterwards, think about the conversation.
Was it difficult or easy?
What did you find out about the other person?
What did you find out about yourself?
How do you feel?

Activity 12. Sharing Weight

A Counter Balance is a balance for two or more people where each person is required to keep the group in balance. If one person lets go or moves away, the weight is no longer shared and the balance is lost.
Counter balances require each participant to trust the other/s and to take a risk.
In pairs, explore different symmetrical counter balances:

  • Facing each other, feet close together, hold hands or link arms and lean back
  • Facing each other, hold partner's shoulders and walk the feet back
  • Back to back and lean out holding hands

What other possibilities are there? Explore asymmetrical counter balances:

  • On different levels
  • Using different body bases - hands and feet, bottom, knees, hip
  • One foot of one person held by the other person

Choreographic Task
Imagine that every counter balance is a 'problem being shared'.

Each pair selects three of the most imaginative counter balances they explored and links them into a short movement sequence.

How will you move into each counter balance?
How will you move out of each counter balance and into the next one?

Rehearse and present to the class or another pair.
Allow a short time for students to try any new counter balances they saw performed by other pairs.

Explore counter balances in groups of three or four. What possibilities are there?

The next Dance activities involve taking responsibility for another person's weight - that is, one person is supporting the weight of another.

Activity 13. Taking Responsibility for Someone Else

Class discussion:
When do we need to make sure that another person's needs are met before our own?
If your needs aren't met straight away, what do you do?
What are some reasons why people's needs aren't always met?

If possible, organise the students into pairs of similar height and weight (the supporter and the 'supportee').

Message to students: Keep in mind that every support made in these next exercises is a time where you are being responsible for another person. You must keep them safe and they trust you to keep them safe.

Static Supports These are when the supporter is not moving.

  • The supporter on hands and knees Safety: The supporter must ensure that the knees are directly under the hips and the hands are flat on the floor directly under the shoulders. The strongest place for support is the pelvis and the weakest is the centre of the back. Do not allow any 'supportee' to place their weight on the centre of a supporter's back.Explore ways to balance on the other person: Back to back - Pelvis to pelvis Extend this to roll up and over from one side to the other with a back to back balance in the middle Knees on the pelvis and hands on the shoulders One knee on the pelvis and one hand on the diagonal shoulder What other possibilities are there?
  • Standing Support Safety: The supporter must stand with their feet at shoulder width apart, knees over the toes and bracing the hands on the thighs The supportee places his/her hands on the supporter's pelvis, pushes down and lifts the feet off the floor. Explore different positions to place the legs while they are in the air Explore walking towards the supporter from one side, placing the hands on the pelvis, pushing the feet off the floor and landing on the other side. What are some other possibilities?
  • Side by Side Lift Standing side by side, hip against hip, supporter on the left The supporter stands with his/her feet at shoulder width apart, puts his/her right arm around the lower back of the supportee and holds the supportee's right hip. The supportee places his/her left arm across the upper back of the supporter's and holds onto the supporter's left shoulder. Both dancers bend their knees and rock towards the right. Rock towards the left and the supporter continues the momentum to the left by gently lifting the supportee off the floor, using the hip as a brace. Rock back to the right as the supportee is lowered to the floor once again. How high can the supportee raise his/her right leg during the lift? What positions can the supportee place his/her right arm in during the lift?
Moving Support
  • Crucifix lift This is a lift for two supporters and one supportee and is performed while moving. Stand side by side with the smallest person in the middle. The centre person holds his/her arms in second position (as in a crucifix) in front of the supporters. Each supporter places his/her 'inside' hand (the one closest to the supportee) high on the upper arm of the supportee, with the fingers over the top of the arm and the thumb underneath. Each supporter then places the outside hand on the supportee's lower arm (near the wrist) using the same grip. The supportee must keep his/her arms very straight and should push the arms down as the supporters lift him/her up. Explore with a static start, taking care to lower the supportee to the floor gently Explore with a slow walk forwards before the lift Explore with a three-step run before the lift. How high can the supportee be lifted?

Choreographic Task
Work in groups of three. Explore ways to perform two different, imaginative counter balances Practise two different lifts.
Link them into a short and flowing sequence, beginning and ending with the counter balances.
Rehearse and perform for the class.

Assessment Opportunity
LO3: Students can create and perform safe counter balances
LO4: Students can create and perform safe static or moving weight-taking movements

Activity 14. 'People Who Have Made A Difference in Dance'

This activity provides the opportunity for students to gain an insight into the work of two famous New Zealanders who have 'made a difference' to others in positive ways through participation in their respective dance genres - Sir Apirana Ngata (Waiata-a-ringa) and Sir Jon Trimmer (Ballet).

The notes provided are brief and students could use them as starting points for further in-depth study.The unit then concludes with a short study of respectful and disrespectful behaviour within the two dance genres.This work could contribute to the dance genre to be studied for:

Dance 1.4 (AS90004) - View, Interpret and Respond to a Dance Performance

Dance 1.5 (AS90005) - Demonstrate knowledge of a dance genre or styleDance 2.5 (AS90297) - Analyse and Discuss a Dance Performance

Dance 2.6 (AS90298) - Demonstrate Knowledge of Influences on a Selected Dance Genre or Style

Dance 3.4 (AS90597) - Critically Analyse Dance Performance

Dance 3.5 (AS90598) - Demonstrate Knowledge of Dance in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

This work could also be extended to performance pieces:

Dance 1.2 (AS90002): Perform Dance Sequences (Waiata-a-ringa and Ballet)

Dance 1.3 (AS90003): Perform a Dance as a Member of a Group (Waiata-a-ringa or Ballet)

Dance 2.3 (AS90295): Perform an Ethnic or Social Dance (Waiata-a-ringa)

Using the notes on Sir Apirana Ngata and Sir Jon Trimmer:

There are many ways to encourage students to read a section of text. Being given a page of text to read by themselves is a disincentive for some students. One of the suggestions below may be appropriate for your class:

  • Picture Dictation: The teacher reads the text aloud, pausing after short blocks for students to sketch simple pictures to represent what they heard
  • Main-Points Tableau: Have the students in small groups. As for picture dictation, the teacher reads the text aloud, but at each pause, the group forms a tableau or still shape to represent what they heard.
  • Divide the text into short sections and give pairs of students one section each to summarise and report back
  • As above, but instead of reporting back just by using speech, they perform a short mime of their section or create a short spoken drama

Give a copy of

Worksheet Five (Word 26 KB)

to each student and in small groups they complete the information required in each box.Repeat, perhaps using a different method of 'reading' the text with

Worksheet Six (Word 34 KB)

Assessment Opportunity
LO5: Students can identify key features about the life of Sir Apirana Ngata and his contribution to the development of waiata-a-ringa
LO6: Students can identify key features about the life of Sir Jon Trimmer and his contribution to the Royal New Zealand Ballet
LO7: Students can identify and compare respectful behaviour when dancing in a kapa haka or ballet performance

Download Word file (Word 224 KB)

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